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Cardiac Surgeons in Arkansas:

Conditions Treated by Cardiac Surgeons

High Cholesterol
You have this condition if there are high levels of cholesterol in the blood. There are three parts of cholesterol: Low density lipoproteins (LDL)-known as bad cholesterol. It causes build up of cholesterol and other fats in the blood vessels. High LDL levels can cause artery and heart disease.High density lipoproteins (HDL)-known as good cholesterol. It can remove cholesterol and other fats from the blood vessels. High levels of HDL can protect against heart disease.Triglycerides-a common form of fat in the body. Often elevated in people with diabetes or certain genetic conditions.Particles-proteins associated with certain types of cholesterols in the body. These may be a better signal about your risk of developing disease in the blood vessels.

Atherosclerosis is hardening of a blood vessel from a build up of plaque. Plaque is made of fatty deposits, cholesterol, and calcium. It builds on the inside lining of arteries. This causes the artery to narrow and harden. It affects large and medium-sized arteries.

Congestive Heart Failure
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body. The term â??heart failureâ? should not be confused with â??heart attack.â? Heart failure occurs after the heart muscle has been damaged or weakened by another primary cause, such as High Blood Pressure , Coronary Artery Disease , or certain kinds of infections. Depending on the cause, heart failure can occur gradually, over many years, while the heart tries to compensate for its loss of function, or it may occur more quickly if a lot of the heart muscle is damaged at once.

Heart Attack
A Heart Attack occurs when blood flow to the heart is interrupted. This deprives the heart muscle of oxygen, causing tissue damage or tissue death. Other names for heart attack include coronary attack, myocardial infarction, coronary thrombosis, and coronary occlusion.

Overweight and obesity are defined as having a body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 25 and 30, respectively. In children, the BMI is based on growth charts. Being overweight and obese occur when calorie intake is consistently greater than the number of calories burned through activity and basic metabolic processes.

Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder caused by autoimmune distruction of the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas resulting in the body's inability to produce sufficient insulin to meet bodily needs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to use sugar for energy. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) from the carbohydrate food you eat cannot enter cells. This causes glucose to build up in the blood, leaving your body cells and tissues starved for energy. While a variety of tissue transplantation techniques are under development and some genetically-based treatments have been proposed, at this point in time, the only widely-available treatment for type 1 diabetes is the injection of insulin.

Stroke is a brain injury that occurs when the brain's blood supply is interrupted. Without oxygen and nutrients from blood, brain tissue starts to die within minutes, resulting in a sudden loss of function. Another term for stroke is cerebrovascular accident (CVA).

Type 2 Diabetes
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Type 2 Diabetes is primarily a disorder in which the cells in the body are not responding to the high levels of insulin circulating in the body. The body becomes increasingly resistant to insulin. In end-stage type 2 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas are not producing enough insulin.

Heart Block
The heart is comprised of four chambers: two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). The sinoatrial (SA) node, located near the top of the right atrium, produces electrical signals that are sent to the atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node then sends the signals to the ventricles, which are the primary pumping chambers of the heart. When the heart is functioning well, the electrical signals are transmitted smoothly from the atria to the ventricles, causing rhythmic muscle contractions that pump blood to the rest of the body.

Obesity-Children and Teens
Being overweight or obese means your weight is above an ideal weight range. Appropriate weight ranges are calculated using the body mass index (BMI). For anyone under 20 years of age, these scales are based on height, weight, sex, and date of birth. Child and teen BMI results differ from adult BMI. This is because they are compared to the results of other children and teens in the same age range. This extra step takes into account that children and teens are still growing. BMI levels for anyone under age 20 are as follows:Underweight-BMI at or below the 5th percentile for the age groupDesired weight-BMI between the 5th-84th percentiles for the age groupOverweight-BMI between the 85th-94th percentiles for the age groupObese-BMI at or above the 95th percentile for the age group