Spherocytosis (Congenital Spherocytic Anemia, Hereditary Spherocytosis)

Pronounced: sf-er-oh-sigh-TO-sis

En Espaol (Spanish Version)


Spherocytosis is a condition that causes an abnormality in the red blood cell membrane. While healthy blood cells are shaped like flattened, indented disks, these abnormal membranes lead to sphere-shaped red blood cells, and the premature breakdown of those cells.

Red blood cells suffering from spherocytosis are smaller, rounder in shape, and more fragile than healthy red blood cells. The rounded shape causes the red blood cells to be caught in the spleen, where they break down.

Spherocytosis occurs in all races, but is most common in people of northern European descent.

Spherocytosis cases may be very mild, with minor symptoms, or very severe with symptoms that quickly surface. These symptoms may occur after certain types of infections. Severe cases may be diagnosed in childhood, while those with mild symptoms may not be diagnosed until into adulthood.

With treatment, symptoms can be controlled.

Healthy Red Blood Cells


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Spherocytosis is a hereditary condition caused by genes inherited from the parents.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.

The following factors increase your chance of developing spherocytosis: Having a family member with spherocytosis Symptoms Symptoms include: JaundicePallorShortness of breathFatigueWeaknessIn children, irritability and moodinessHemolytic anemiaGallstones DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Tests may include the following: Examination of the spleenBlood testsLiver function testsOsmotic and incubated fragility tests to diagnose hereditary spherocytosisCoombs' Testan antiglobulin test to examine red blood cell antibodies TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include: Folic Acid Supplementation Folic acid 1 mg daily and consideration for blood transfusions are recommended during periods of severe anemia. SurgerySurgical removal of the spleen can cure the anemia. The abnormal shape of blood cells remain, but the blood cells are no longer destroyed in the spleen. Currently, meningococcal, Haemophilus, and pneumococcal vaccines are administered several weeks before splenectomy. Lifetime penicillin prophylaxis is recommended after surgery to prevent dangerous infections. The surgery is not recommended for children under the age of five. There is a lifetime risk of serious and potentially life threatening infections.
PreventionBecause spherocytosis is an inherited condition, it is not possible to prevent the disease. Regular screening of individuals at high risk, however, can prevent the risk of complications of the disease with early treatment. RESOURCES: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centerhttp://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/ University of Virginia Health Systemhttp://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/ CANADIAN RESOURCES: About Kids Healthhttp://www.aboutkidshealth.ca Alberta Children's Serviceshttp://www.child.alberta.ca/home/ References: Congenital spherocytic anemia. Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. US National Library of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000530.htm.Accessed June 27, 2007. Delaunay J. The molecular basis of hereditary red blood cell membrane disorders. Blood Rev. 2007;21:1-20. Hereditary spherocytosis. Texas Children's Cancer Center and Hematology Service. Baylor College of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.bcm.edu/pediatrics/documents/4112.pdf.Accessed June 27, 2007. Treatment of anemia at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/anemia/index.html.Accessed June 27, 2007. Last reviewed April 2008 by Rimas Lukas, MDPlease be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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