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Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common, usually benign heart disorder. The mitral valve controls blood flow between the upper (atrium) and lower (ventricle) chambers on the left side of the heart. Normally, blood should only flow in one direction, from the upper chamber into the lower chamber. In MVP, the valve flaps dont work properly; part of the valve balloons into the atrium, which may be associated with blood flowing in the wrong direction, or leaking back into the atrium.
Prolapsed Mitral Valve
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In most cases, the cause of MVP is unknown. In some cases, it appears to be an inherited genetic condition. Rarely, MVP may be caused by:
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
People with mitral valve prolapse often have no symptoms at all. If symptoms do occur, however, they may include one or more of the following:
Irregular heart beatFatigueChest pain Panic attacks or anxietyRapid heart beat (palpitations)Sensation of missed heart beatsShortness of breathDizziness Intestinal problems (such as irritable bowel syndrome ) Diagnosis Mitral valve prolapse can be heard through a stethoscope. A small blood leakage will sound like a murmur. When the mitral valve balloons backward, it may produce a clicking sound. Both murmurs and clicks are telltale signs of MVP. An echocardiogram can confirm the diagnosis. You may also be asked to wear a Holter monitor for a day or two to continuously record the electrical activity of your heart (EKG). Treatment In most cases, no treatment is necessary. Speak with your doctor about whether you should take antibiotics prior to dental work or surgery. Antibiotics may help to prevent endocarditis , an infection of the membrane that covers the inside of the heart. If symptoms include chest pain, anxiety, or panic attacks, a beta-blocker medication can be prescribed. Ask your doctor whether you may continue to participate in your usual athletic activities.In very rare cases, the blood leakage may become severe. In these few cases, the mitral valve may need to be surgically repaired or replaced.
PreventionThere are no guidelines for preventing MVP of unknown or genetic origin. You may be able to prevent symptoms, however, through certain lifestyle changes: Limit your intake of caffeine.Avoid medications (such as decongestants) that speed up your heart rate.Exercise regularly, following your healthcare providers recommendations for intensity. RESOURCES: American Heart Associationhttp://www.americanheart.org Heart Information Networkhttp://www.heartinfo.org CANADIAN RESOURCES: Canadian Cardiovascular Societyhttp://www.ccs.ca/home/index_e.aspx Canadian Family Physicianhttp://www.cfpc.ca/cfp/ References: American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org . National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ . Last reviewed December 2007 by J. Peter Oettgen, MDPlease be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.